HOW TO WRITE: AP Rhetorical Analysis Paragraphs and Essays
Things you must know in order to accurately analyze a text:
2. Rhetorical Strategies
a. Appeals (ethos, logos, pathos)
b. Style (diction, syntax, details, imagery, tone, etc.)
3. Why did the author choose these strategies for the particular audience, occasion, and/or purpose? a. This is the analysis part! Without this, you are merely summarizing the text. b. Think about these questions:
i. HOW do the rhetorical strategies help the author achieve his/her purpose? ii. WHY does the author chose those strategies for that particular audience and for that particular occasion?
Once you’ve identified the information above, it’s time to begin putting your thoughts and ideas into a format that proves you have accurately analyzed the text. There are many ways to write an effective rhetorical analysis essay. Below is one way that is a good, simple format to help you get started. You may find as you become more comfortable with analysis that you want to deviate from this format. That’s fine as long as you are still focusing on numbers 1-3 from above. Introduction
The introductory paragraph to an analysis essay is usually brief. However, it must contain some essential information.
Put SOAPS in your introduction and follow this format:
1. Speaker, Occasion, and Subject
(Writer’s credentials), (writer’s first and last name), in his/her (type of text), (title of text), (strong verb – see list at end of this handout) (writer’s subject). 2. Purpose
(Writer’s last name)’s purpose is to (what the writer does in the text). 3. Audience
He/she adopts a[n] (adjective describing the attitude/feeling conveyed by the writer) tone in order to (verb phrase describing what the writer wants readers to do/think) in his/her (intended audience).
Novelist, Amy Tan, in her narrative essay, “Fish Cheeks,” recounts an embarrassing Christmas Eve dinner when she was 14 years old. Tan’s purpose is to convey the idea that, at fourteen, she wasn’t able to recognize the love her mother had for her or the sacrifices she made. She adopts a sentimental tone in order to appeal to similar feelings and experiences in her adult readers.
This is the analysis part! This is where you include a detailed explanation of strategies used by the writer. When writing an analysis, it is crucial that you work chronologically through the text. This means that you start at the beginning of the text and work your way through it by discussing what the writer is saying and the effectiveness of the strategies he/she is using at the beginning, middle, and end of the text. Sometimes this means that you will discuss each paragraph (one at a time), and sometimes this means that you will divide the text into sections and discuss the beginning, middle, and end of the text. Whether you discuss each paragraph or each section depends on the length and organization of the text itself. To help you move chronologically through the text, there are transition words you can use. A few of them are listed below:
Every analysis paragraph MUST:
• Identify the part of the text you are analyzing by using transition words and strong verbs to explain what is being said.
• Identify the strongest rhetorical strategies used in that particular section. This includes incorporating specific text examples (exact words from the text – see last page of this handout for proper format) into your own words. Do NOT try to discuss every strategy the writer uses; pick the strongest!
• Clearly and specifically explain how the rhetorical strategies are used to help the writer achieve his purpose and reach his audience.
• The above items must be woven together seamlessly into one sophisticated paragraph of the body of your analysis essay. A sample format is below:
FORMAT and EXAMPLE [from Pres. Reagan’s speech after the space shuttle.
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Joe Tucker A.P. English11 4/8/2014 Mrs. Turon The Betterment of Society through the Regulation of Child Labor In the 1800’s child labor was not what we think of today. It wasn’t what American children call labor, like mowing the lawn or cleaning the house, it was a much more intense situation. Children in that time period worked ten to eighteen hour days in a factory. On average a fair wage for a child was a dollar after a fifty to seventy hour week. This labor came with a cost it often prevented children from going to school, stunted their growth and many walked away with life altering injuries. It was not until 1938 that child labor was ended in America. Reformation of underage labor had a profound positive effect on society, it allowed city working class people to leave the slums, and increased their quality of life. Chicago highlights this societal change. It was a major industrial city during the nineteenth century, housing one of America’s largest industries, meat packing. Adolescents of the time period epitomized child labor. In Upton Sinclair’s, muckraking novel, The Jungle, it is stated “So it was finally decided that two more of the children would have to leave school. Little Kotrina… the two boys… Vilamas eleven, and Nikalojus, who was ten… there was no reason why their family would starve when tens of thousands of children were earning their own livings.” (Sinclair 146) It was normal for families’ of the time period to.
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English Language and Composition Reading Time: 15 minutes Suggested Writing Time: 40 minutes Directions: The following prompt is based on the accompanying six sources. This question requires you to integrate a variety of sources into a coherent, well-written essay. Refer to the sources to support your position; avoid mere paraphrase or summary. Your argument should be central; the sources should support this argument. Remember to attribute both direct and indirect citations. Introduction Recycling has been a lingering political issue for years. Multiple federal recycling bills have been proposed, and none have come close to being voted into law. Environmentalists argue that the environment isn’t the only thing that benefits from recycling, but the economy benefits from it as well. If this is the case, how come these proposed bills haven't been voted into law? Is recycling not as good as the majority of Americans believe it to be? Assignment Read the following sources (including any introductory information) carefully. Then, in an essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources for support, take a position that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that recycling has a positive impact on the environment and America’s economy. Refer to the sources as Source A, Source B, etc.; titles are included for your convenience. Source A (Schulz) Source B (Clough) Source C (Horton) Source D (Beautyman) Source E (Unknown Publisher) Source F (Lingam).
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التقييم التربوي الشامل لدولة قطر االختبار التجريبي 2013 اللغة االنجليزية الصف الحادي عشر ( متقدم ) English Reading/Writing Grade11 Advanced WRITING STRATEGIES AND MECHANICS 1 Choose the words that belong in the blank. My brother was always fascinated by how the human heart works, so it was not surprising that he became _____________. A an audiologist B a cardiologist C a dermatologist D an anthropologist 2 Choose the words that belong in the blank. A new computer store is opening this weekend. It’s name,__________. means it is a very big store. A Computer Kilomart B Computer Dynomart C Computer Extramart D Computer Megamart 3 Choose the word that belongs in the blank. Many people in the world face a _________of clean drinking water. Clean drinking water is either far away or simply not available. A shortage B development C source D variety 4 Choose the word that belongs in the blank. Scientists study changes in air pressure and wind movements to help ________ what the weather will be in the future. A capture B handle C predict D revise Read the paragraphs below and answer the questions that follow. The Overfishing of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (1) Atlantic bluefin tuna are warm-blooded fish that inhabit the waters of the North Atlantic and its adjacent seas. (2) These fish are fast and powerful swimmers that weigh 250 kilograms on average and grow up to two meters long. (3) _______. their.
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Terms to Know for the AP Test Argumentation (The use of logic to prove a point) Assert/assertions/unqualified assertions - opinions stated as facts – the basis of all arguments Ex. “Such is not the course adopted by tyranny in democratic republics, body is left free, and the soul is enslaved.” The writer asserts that, in democratic republics, the soul is enslaved. This assertion rests upon an assumption – a supposed “fact” that is never actually proved. The assumption is that tyranny does exist in democratic republics. Qualification (qualifying a statement) - to modify, restrict or limit - An unqualified assertion, then, is an opinion stated as truth with no limitations or modifications. If you are asked to defend, challenge, or qualify someone else’s point, then qualify means that you may redefine the argument in some way. Ex. If the position is, “If ignorance is bliss, then ‘tis folly to be wise,” a qualification of this argument is illustrated by the following: While ignorance may seem blissful, true wisdom comes from experiencing both happiness and sorrow, and understanding the existence of both good and evil. Speaker’s stance - the attitude a speaker takes on a particular issue; the speaker’s position Ex. In George Bernard Shaw’s “The Devil Speaks,” the devil’s stance is that man’s creative powers are used to create instruments of destruction; man loves destruction and death. Issue.
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Year 11 Journeys Speech For many individuals, the most memorable journeys are the ones that give opportunities to extend ourselves despite the challenges that we may face. The protagonist in Mark Forster’s film The Kite Runner embarks on a journey to rescue his nephew in which he needs to return to his home country Afghanistan that within the end provides him with redemption and acceptance. Similarly, the protagonist presented in the short film Identity by K. J. Adams and the persona in Eminem’s Lose Yourself face many challenges on their pursuit. It will be shown through a variety of techniques in each text how for some individuals experiencing challenging physical, inner and imaginative journeys can both challenge and extend us. To begin, one of the most memorable journeys presented in the kite runner is the main character’s return to Afghanistan to rescue his nephew Sohrab. Forster emphasizes how dangerous Amir’s mission was through the use of music and body language. One particular scene shows Amir travelling through the Taliban checkpoints, as he makes his way towards his destination. The non diegetic music begins to fasten as the scene progresses. This creates suspense and foreshadows the challenging circumstances that will soon occur. The behaviour of Amir in this specific scene shows how uncomfortable he is not only with his disguise, but with the situation itself. As he is pushed out of his comfort zone he understands that rescuing Sohrab is the.
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supporting Patrick Henry, following the instructions in the lesson. 1. According to Patrick Henry, what is the basic question being debated at the Virginia Convention? Henry states that the debate was “nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery.” He then defined the level of the situation and says that slavery is a “retreat”. 2. What reasons does Henry offer to suggest that the British were not worthy of trust at that time? Henry’s main reason was that it was the British were collecting and gathering military services that are an essential for America. 3. What argument does Henry provide against the notion that the colonies are too weak to fight the British? He provides the argument that God has provided them with the required power to battle their enemy/rivals. If they sit around and continue to do nothing, they cannot win the battle. 4. What is Henry implying when he says that he is loyal to "the majesty of heaven. above all earthly kings"? What tone (manner in which an author expresses his attitude) does this statement hold? He is clarifying that he is loyal to God above anyone else. I believe the tone is a humble yet respectful one, though some may think otherwise. 5. Why are Henry's final words so effective and memorable? His final words, “Give me liberty or give me death,” were so effective and memorable, because not only have they been used numerous times over the years, also they have become a representation and guide for our country.
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"The Masque of the Red Death" 1. Poe was a master "wordsmith." Through carefully chosen diction he is able to create a psychological effect on his reader. What effect did his description of "Red Death," in the very first paragraph of the story, have on you? Quote those details that provoke this response from you. Through Poe’s diction there was a psychological effect made on the reader. “The "Red Death" had long devastated the country. No pestilence had ever been so fatal, or so hideous. Blood was its Avatar(1) and its seal – the redness and the horror of blood. There were sharp pains, and sudden dizziness, and then profuse bleeding at the pores, with dissolution.” From his description i thought of the outbreak of the bubonic plague that devastated western europe. 2. Why does Poe rely heavily on imagery to provide a detailed description of Prospero's hall? I believe poe tried to portray the Dukes behavior for us to get a glimpse of why people thought he was mad. 3. "He had come like a thief in the night." Where in literature is this allusion taken from? What is the significance of the allusion? You may need to put the expression into a search engine in order to find the source of the allusion. This phrase is from the Bible in 1 Thessalonian.The significance of it is that you should keep your guard up because you never know when a “thief” will sneak up on you. 4. The most featured word throughout the story is blood, yet Poe has carefully chosen it to represent.
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Chemistry Graham Swift English The Boat represented the Family on how it was before ralph and how they were as the original family. Graham used the term of the boat to represent how the family was “laboured but steady” “The voyages were trouble free. Grandfather improvised a wire grapnel on the end of a length of fishing line incase of shipwrecks or engine failure ,but it was never used”. (line 20)This shows how the family never needed anybody else they were always trouble free as a The Boy describes how they set the boat on its first trip across the pond since the mother and ralph got together saying “Suddenly the boat became deeper and deeper in the water. the motor cut, the launch swallowed. sank” Here Graham is using the boat to describe how the new family is not as good as the origional family as “Grandfather made several throws of his grapnel its now just Ralph the and pulled outboy clumps green slime” This mother. the andof his shows how the grandfather tried to save grandad. the boat and save the family but failed in both attempts “ How about me buying you a new one. How would you like that ?” Here Ralph is trying to buy the boy a new boat as a way of saying he is now part of the family but the boy does not see it this way as to him his boat was special as it was something he did with his “As it moved it seemed that it followed an actual existing line between Grandfather. myself and mother as if grandfather was pulling us toward him.
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Sample Essays from AP English Literature Free Response Questions
2010 AP@ ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION FREEwRESPONSE QUESTIONS Question 3 (Suggested time-40 minutes. This question counts as onewthird of the total essay section score.) Palestinian American literary theorist and cultural critic Edward Said has written that "Exile is strangely compelling to think about but terrible to experience. It is the unhealable rift forced between a human being and a native place, between the self and its true home: its essential sadness can never be surmounted." Yet Said has also said that exile can become "a potent, even enriching" experience. Select a novel, play, or epic in which a character experiences such a rift and becomes cut off from "home," whether that home is the character's birthplace, family, homeland, or other special place. Then write an essay in which you analyze how the character's experience with exile is both alienating and enriching, and how this experience illuminates the meaning of the work as a whole. You may choose a work from the list below or one of comparable literary merit. Do not merely summarize the pIo.t. The American Obasan Angle of Repose The Odyssey Another Coun.tly One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. As You Like It The Other Brave New \¥orld Paradise Lost Crime and Punishment The Poisonwood Bible Doctor Zhivago A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Hear! of Darkn.ess The Road In.visible Man Robinson Crusoe Jane Eyre Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead Jasmine Sister Carrie Jude the Obscu.re Sister of My Heart King Lear Snow Falling on Cedars The Little Faxes The Tempest Madame BOllary Things Fall Apart The Mavor of CaSlerbridge The Women of Brewster Place My A l 1 t
n i a Wuthering Heights STOP END OF EXAM © 2010 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. -4- 2010 AP English Literature Scoring Guide Question #3: Exile General Directions: This scoring guide will be useful for most of the essays that you read, but in problematic cases, please consult your table leader. The score that you assign should reflect your judgment of the quality of the essay as a whole-its content, style, and mechanics. Reward the writers for what they do well. The score for an exceptionally well-written essay may be raised by one point above the otherwise appropriate score. In no case maya poorly written essay be scored higher than a three (3). 9-8 These essays offer a well-focused and persuasive analysis of how, in a novel, play, or epic, a character's experience with exile is both alienating and enriching. Using apt and specific textual SUpp0l1, these essays explore the character's complex responses to being cut offfrom a home place and analyze what the experience of exile contributes to the meaning of the work as a whole. Although not without flaws, these essays make a strong case for their interpretation and discuss the literary work with significant insight and understanding. Essays scored a nine (9) reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of language than do essays scored an eight (8). 7-6 These essays offer a reasonable analysis of how, in a novel, play, or epic, a character's experience with exile is both alienating and enriching. These essays explore the character's complex responses and identify what the experience of exile contributes to the meaning of the work as a whole. While these papers have insight and understanding, their analysis is less thorough, less perceptive, and/or less specific in supporting detail than that of the 9-8 essays. Essays scored a seven (7) present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a six (6). 5 These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading, but they tend to be superficial or thinly developed in analysis. They often rely upon plot summary that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Although the writers attempt to discuss how a character's experience with exile is both alienating and enriching and what the experience contributes to the meaning of the work as a whole, they may demonstrate a rather simplistic understanding of the character or the work, and suppoli from the text may be too general. While these writers demonstrate adequate control of language, their essays may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7-6 essays. 4-3 These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of how, in a novel, play, or epic, a character's experience with exile is both alienating and enriching. The analysis may be paltial, unsupported, or irrelevant, and the essays may reflect an incomplete or oversimplified understanding of the character's experience with exile. They may not develop a response to how that experience contributes to the work as a whole, or they may rely on plot summary alone. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual SUppOtt, or an accumulation of e r r o r s
they may lack control over the elements of college-level composition. Essays scored a three (3) may contain significant misreading and demonstrate inept writing. 2-1 Although these essays make some attempt to respond to the prompt, they compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 4-3 range. Often, they are unacceptably brief or are incoherent in presenting their ideas. They may be poorly written on several counts and contain distracting errors in grammar and mechanics. The writers' remarks are presented with little clarity, organization, or suppOiting evidence. Particularly inept, vacuous, and/or incoherent essays are scored a one (1). o These essays give a response with no more than a reference to the task. These essays are either left blank or are completely off-topic. Write in the box the number of the question you are answering on this page as it is designated in the exam. _ - '" L. J) l CA. '1 0 u. (\G) z, 0-0 \. (s n C ['( \ C i. r\ 1 \'\. do( + r(l,\J -e. s A0 .-r-Vle. ce (\C() 0 -\-\n.-e- '\ 0 f- 0. - 'Srt- e Qffi\ o CCLe +-0-\ Y\ I::\: \r\ 0 U£j \A. 0-Co V>CQ 4 t'. of t) \ 0C:) \,( 0 0 - ) <\ km0 1vo C-";j +\rC1--&-er )(\2 e-s '3 - /\A 6t r t 0 vU cJ. cCo \, Q 5 \r\\C) \o:t\bYl. cl\\td'P.ecu-\ w\l"htU+\iIvL Q \ ct ot-D. fu-\itler D r \\ f\ '. rt VlbW t-a y-- s Vl / 3> I E E
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Write a powerful AP English Essay exam with this straightforward, easy-to-follow study guide--updated for all the latest exam changes
5 Steps to a 5: Writing the AP English Essay features an effective, 5-step plan to guide your preparation program and help you build the skills, knowledge, and test-taking confidence you need to succeed. This fully revised edition covers the latest course syllabus and matches the latest exams.
Part I Introduction to the Training Program
1. Get with the Program
Part II: Know the Basics
2. Basic Writing Exercises
3. Rhetorical Strategies
4. Writing Style
Part III: Writing Exercise Program and Routine
5. The Essay Writing Prompt
6. Prewriting and Planning
7. Introducing Your Essay
8. Writing the Body of the Essay
9. Writing the conclusion and Revising
Part IV: Evaluations and Adjustments
10. Practice with Sample AP English Language Essays
11. Practice with Sample AP English Literature Essays
Part V: Training Supplements