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* What was the significance of the election of 1800? Although the Federalists lacked popular support, they ran the government Their party had appointed all federal government officials Their party had appointed all military officers Their party had been the only ruling party the nation had known, and had been so for 12 years In 1800 though, John Adams is defeated in the Presidential election by Thomas Jefferson, and steps down without a fight This establishes the system of the peaceful transfer of power that Americans use to this day, a novelty in world history
* What was the Louisiana Purchase? In 1800, Napoleon forces Spain to give back the Louisiana territory to France This worried Jefferson who thought having France back on the continent would force the U.S. to ally with the British By 1803, Napoleon is planning a full scale war in Europe Could not afford an American/British alliance Needed money desperately, in order to fund war In order to accomplish these goals, Napoleon offers to sell the Louisiana Territory, as well as New Orleans, to the United States for $15 million dollars Doubles the size of the nation Gives the United States control of the entire Mississippi River
* What were the political ramifications of the Louisiana Purchase? A great deal of new land means a great deal of new farmers out west Ramifications for political party affiliation Ramifications for sectional tensions
* What did we do with all of this new land? The first thing we were to do, was to map and explore it Captain Zebulon Pike explored Colorado and down into present day southern Texas to chart the Rio Grande, Mississippi and Colorado Rivers Gave Americans the first detailed descriptions of the great plains and Rocky Mountains Pike’s Peak in Colorado named after him Most famous expedition was that of Merriwether Lewis and William Clark
* Who was the Corps of Discovery, and what was their purpose? The Corps of Discovery was led by Lewis and Clark and consisted of 30 men It was a secret mission chartered by Thomas Jefferson, and funded by Congress It had to be kept a secret because Federalists did not want it to succeed, and the Spanish and English were attempting to sabotage it The mission was to take the Missouri River to a point where they could find a navigable waterway that led to the Pacific, known as the Northwest passage They were also to study the geography, botany, wildlife, and people of the new territory They were also to establish American claims to the Oregon Country
* What trials did the Corps face? The Corps journey was something new along every turn, this was totally unexplored territory for Americans They confronted long and harsh mountain winters They encountered strong rivers they had to take a month to go around They encountered the Grand Canyon, and navigating through it They encountered the barren plains of the Dakotas They found many friendly Indian tribes, but also many hostile to them They were aided in translation by a half Indian - half French trapper named Toussiant Charboneau, and his wife an Indian named Sacajawea, who brought their infant son with them. Wild animals such as grizzly bears, and pestilent mosquitoes Disease
* Was the Corps’ Mission a Success? The Corps never found the Northwest Passage, but they did make it to the Pacific, and established a claim on the Oregon country for the United States, as well as establishing U.S. interests in the west. Lewis and Clark were received like heroes, remarkable for an age when egalitarianism (the belief that all men are equal in economic, political, and social rights.) was the overriding political sentiment
* Who was Aaron Burr, and why was he important? Aaron Burr was the Vice President of the United States under Jefferson He ran for Governor of New York in 1804 He was opposed by Alexander Hamilton, a long time political adversary Hamilton wrote in a local paper that, “(Burr is)… a dangerous man, and one who ought not be trusted with the reins of government.” Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, and mortally wounded him Burr became involved with men such as General James Wilkinson, who were secretly plotting to take the Louisiana Territory and make it a country for themselves, and was charged with treason He was acquitted, but his political career was over His trial did set the precedent for how the charge of treason was applied in the future though
England and France Again…………………. * What led America into the War of 1812? Economic war between the two hurts American trade British Impressment Native hostilities The Young War Hawks * Orders in Council states Britain has right to require all ships bound for Europe to have a license, and they would be searched for contraband * What were the Orders in Council? * What was the Continental System? Napoleon states that anyone obeying the British system, or receiving goods from them is subject to French confiscation of their goods
* How did America respond to the Continental System and Orders in Council? President Jefferson places an embargo (a government ban on trade with other countries) on all trade with England and France Jefferson’s apprentice, President Madison, signs Non Intercourse Act which also prevented trade with the two, but also allowed him to reopen trade with whomever removed their restrictions first. France drops their restrictions first while Britain refuses Darth madison- The apprentice
* What led America into the War of 1812? * What is impressment? The British Navy was short of recruits, and so would stop ships to press men they thought had deserted from British ships into service. The Leopard and Chesapeake Affair is a major incident in this regard
Who are The Prophet, Tecumseh, William Henry Harrison, and how were they involved in tensions between Natives and Americans? The Prophet Tenskwatawa encourages Natives to partake in the Ghost Dance and live in religious communities away from whites where they can preserve Indian ways. His brother Tecumseh was a war leader that believed all Natives, regardless of what tribe, should band together to stop the spread of the white man even further west. The Indiana Governor William Henry Harrison takes a force out to stop them at the Battle of Tippecanoe Tecumseh took what remained of his defeated force to Canada, where they joined the British, whom many people felt were inciting the Indians to attack Americans
Who were the War Hawks? A group of young Congressmen from the south and west Considered to be the second generation of Americans Anxious to prove their worthiness of the Revolutionary cause, and to prove that America is indeed a nation So did they have legitimate reasons to want to go to war, or was it just to prove themselves? In any event, President Madison is convinced to ask for a declaration of war, and the War Hawks in Congress make sure he receives it, and the War of 1812 begins
What happened in the War of 1812? Four major theatres in America Canada * Initial success, but eventually a stalemate American east coast * Captured Maine and several New England towns * Burned Washington, D.C. * Blockaded east coast * Attacked Fort McHenry outside of Baltimore in Chesapeake Bay Illinois country Settlers formed militias that fought Native tribes allied with the British like the Sauk, Fox and even Tecumseh Fought British along Great Lakes and Canadian border * American militias would refuse to fight in Canada, and would not cross border
What happened in the War of 1812? Four major theatres in America The South * State militias fought Native tribes like the Creek, as well as the British * Tennesseeans, Kentuckians, Carolinians fought in Alabama, Louisiana and Florida
What was the Hartford Convention? A meeting of representatives of New England states, called by Massachusetts, to discuss the War of 1812 Mostly Federalists Losing money because of Jefferson and Madison’s trade embargoes, and lack of trade with British during the war They proposed changes to the Constitution Prohibit any trade embargo lasting over 60 days Requiring 2/3 of Congress vote to declare an offensive war, admit a new state, or stop foreign commerce Remove the 3/5th’s advantage of the South Limit future President’s to one term Require each President to be from a different state than his predecessor
What was the Hartford Convention? A meeting of representatives of New England states, called by Massachusetts, to discuss the War of 1812 Supported theory of nullification Said if things did not change, New England would seriously consider seceding from the Union and forming their own country
What was the death knell of the Federalist Party? The Hartford Convention When the war was over, and everything was restored to America as status quo ante bellum, the participants were seen as traitorous, and the Federalist Party as collaborators The party was never successful again, and died out
What ended the war? The Treaty of Ghent Restored American and British relations to the status quo ante bellum (how it was before the war) So, who won the War? Established the modern border between Canada and America, and allowed for shared occupation of the Oregon Country by both nations
Well…. Except for that little conflagration in New Orleans It was the last time the Americans fought the British up to the present day…….
What happened in New Orleans? The Battle of New Orleans Napoleon had surrendered, and now the entire British Army is focused on America They sail to capture the crown jewel of America, New Orleans The American military commander in the south sets out to meet them with only a ragtag band of Tennessee militia, and a few American Cavalry Later, about 300 Kentucky Militia also showed up Hardly any of the Americans had workable weapons, powder, or artillery A group of pirates who operated out of the bayous of Louisiana provided powder, and manned cannons, as well as served as scouts for the Americans The French citizens of New Orleans joined the fight en masse in their own militia units Slaves and free blacks also joined militias and fought in the war
What happened in New Orleans? The Battle of New Orleans The large British force is beaten as they send wave after wave against the American’s well dug in positions The American military commander, Major General Andrew Jackson becomes a national hero
Andrew Jackson’s Youth: Born in a log cabin somewhere between North and South Carolina Father dies before birth, Andrew is youngest of three boys Fights in Revolutionary War at the age of 13 Oldest brother, Hugh, dies in a battle Andy and his brother captured by British, and sent to a Prisoner of War camp Andrew asked to shine a British Major’s boots. He refuses, and is punished
Andrew Jackson’s Youth: Fights in Revolutionary War at the age of 13 Andy and brother Robert get smallpox in the camp, and nearly starve to death Their mother walks to the camp and arranges for their release Robert dies shortly after, but Andy’s mother manages to nurse him back to health His mom goes to help some of his cousins who are on a prison ship as POW’s, and ends up catching a disease there, and dying as well
Andrew Jackson’s Frontier Days: A Wild Young Man Likes drinking, fighting, betting on horses and cock fights, and gambling Is involved in 13 duels in his life, most notably the duel with Charles Dickinson Becomes a lawyer in Nashville, and from there a politician representing Tennessee as a Congressman and a Senator Is one of only two representatives to vote against a thank you to George Washington on his retirement from the Presidency
Andrew Jackson’s Frontier Days: Married Life Gets married to Rachel Donelson Robards Bad News---- She is still possibly married when they elope in Spanish Mississippi Most of his duels are fought over people calling Rachel a tramp or whore Andrew loved Rachel passionately, whenever challenged he would defend her honor
Andrew Jackson in Florida: President James Monroe sends Jackson to Florida to stop bands of Creek and Seminole Indians from invading Georgia, and harboring runaway slaves Jackson patrols the border at first, but decides that it would be better if he just chases them into Florida Discovers that these Indian bands are being led by two British officers, and are receiving money from the Spanish Captures the British officers, has a court martial for them, and hangs them Goes on to capture Spanish capital in Florida, Pensacola, imprison governor, and hold on to territory until Spain and America “could work something out.” Britain is upset, Spain is upset, and President Monroe is left holding the bag Decides to give Florida back to Spanish, and moves are made to punish Andrew Jackson, but he survives them
Andrew Jackson in Florida: Secretary of State John Quincy Adams is able to convince the Spanish they cannot hold onto Florida, if America wanted it, they could just take it, so why not just sell it to us? Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 settles the boundary between Spain and the United States in the Louisiana Purchase, and gives Florida to America for $5,000,000.00 Andrew Jackson is appointed Military Governor of Florida
Andrew Jackson and the Run for the Presidency: After a year in Florida, Jackson returned home to Tennessee and was elected a Senator In 1824, he ran for President as one of four candidates in a split party Other candidates were: William Crawford from Georgia, Monroe’s Treasury Secretary, and a strong believer in a strict interpretation of the Constitution, much like Jefferson and Madison Henry Clay from Kentucky, the current Speaker of the House,believed in a high protective tariff, the national bank, and federal funding of internal improvements- which came to be known as The American System John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, currently the Secretary of State, and son of the second President. He liked the idea of internal improvements, but not of high tariffs
Andrew Jackson and the Run for the Presidency: Andrew Jackson wins the popular vote convincingly, but cannot win the electoral college, as none of the candidates received the required majority. As a result, the Constitution leaves it to the House of Representatives to decide, and who leads the House? The House comes out in favor of John Q. Adams, who immediately appoints Henry Clay as Secretary of State Jackson and his supporters cry “THIEVERY!” and say that there was a backroom deal to take the Presidency away from Jackson You don’t dis Jackson, and he will run again in 1828!
Andrew Jackson and the Run for the Presidency: The Presidential campaign of 1828 begins the history of modern politics in America Mudslinging, and ugly campaign tactics dominated the campaign For example; Jackson was called an adultress, and Adams was a pimp Jackson an illiterate, and Adams a refined gentleman Adams an arrogant aristocrat, Jackson a common man of the people The Democratic Republican Party splits over who should be President, and holds conventions to nominate candidates Nationalist Republicans support the American System, and nominate President Adams for reelection Democratic-Republicans (now just called Democrats) nominate Andrew Jackson Before his inauguration, Rachel Jackson dies. Andrew blames the stress from the mudslinging of the campaign, and his opponents, for her death
Andrew Jackson and the Run for the Presidency: Andrew Jackson wins the popular vote, and a majority of the Electoral College in this election, and becomes the 7th President of the United States In order to show his affinity with the common man, he opens up his inauguration to the public, the first President to do so, and even invites them to the White House afterward. The party gets a little out of hand, and the White House is trashed Opponents will point to this as Jackson’s new rule by the mob Historians will identify this as a new period of political participation for all people, and will refer to this style of participatory government as “Jacksonian Democracy.”
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States: The Spoils System- The spoils system is a system wherein the winner of an election is allowed to appoint federal office holders Prior to Jackson, President’s only filled vacant offices. Jackson, however, forces all current officeholders out so he can appoint his own supporters Jackson felt this to be more democratic and equitable to the common man, as this prevented the creation of a permanent office holding class (bureaucracy) His opponents will point out that just because you are a political supporter, it does not make you qualified to do the job As a matter of fact, one of Jackson’s appointments is the first government official to steal a million dollars
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States: The Electoral College- Remember that Jackson had won the popular vote, but could not win the Presidency in 1824 because he could not win the Electoral College From that time on, Jackson would encourage the replacement of the Electoral College with election by the popular vote Opponents will decry this as attempting to have the mob rule, and forcing rule on rural, and distant areas, by more populous areas. In other words, the east would rule the west, who would have little say This is the same argument the Constitutional Convention of 1787 had where the Great Compromise had been offered
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States: Nullification Crisis- The protective tariff helped northern industry, but hurt Southern agriculture A new tariff in 1828, which Southerners called the Tariff of Abominations was passed by Congress, trouble ensued Jackson’s Vice President, John C. Calhoun, a former Senator from South Carolina, used Jefferson’s theory of nullification to try to forestall South Carolina’s outright secession from the union In 1832 Congress passes a new tariff, and South Carolina votes to call a convention, which declared the new tariffs to be unconstitutional Jackson considered this treason, and sent a war ship to Charleston, and Congress gave the President power through the Force Bill to use the military to use military force to enforce laws passed by Congress While this was going on, Henry Clay developed a plan that would lower tariffs gradually until 1842. So, South Carolina repealed its nullification. Both sides claimed victory, and the issue was laid to rest- temporarily.
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States: The Second National Bank- The Second National Bank was chartered by Congress during the Madison administration after Jefferson had dismantled the first bank, in order to pay for the War of 1812 The bank was owned by wealthy northeners, but it did a good job of managing the nation’s money supply Jackson felt that it threatened freedom though, as this elite controlled how loans were made to poor farmers, particularly in the west, and felt that its existence was unconstitutional Even though the Supreme Court had said its existence was Constitutional in McCulloch v. Maryland citing the elastic clause as the basis of its creation. Jackson felt as President, he did not have to accept this court ruling
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States: The Second National Bank- When Congress votes to expand the charter of the Bank by 20 years, Jackson vetoes it It becomes an issue in the 1832 election between Jackson and Henry Clay, in which Jackson easily wins re-election Jackson sees this as a mandate to take out the Second National Bank for ever, and so orders the withdrawal of the United State’s money from the bank, effectively bankrupting them As a result, inflation becomes a reality, and right when Jackson leaves office, in 1837, a depression hits the country
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States: Indian Removal Jackson believes that Indians east of the Mississippi, must be removed farther west for their own protection. The State of Georgia also believes this way, and begins making laws to force the Cherokee out of the state, so they can sell their land to settlers The Cherokee Nation takes the issue to the Supreme Court, claiming that the U.S. has always recognized them as a sovereign nation in their treaties, and therefore, they were not subject to laws of the State of Georgia John Marshall, the Chief Justice, agrees, and states that Indian nations are separate political entities that can only be governed by the United States federal government, so Georgia has no force.
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States: Indian Removal At this, Jackson then takes matters into his own hands, finding some Cherokee leaders who would sign a treaty of removal, though they only represented a small band of Cherokee, he then sends in 7,000 U.S. troops to force the Cherokee out at once, and at gunpoint. This mass exodus is known today as “The Trail of Tears.” Many did not have time to pack their possessions, including shoes, and 4,000 of the 15,000 Cherokee died along the journey Though a horrible tragedy, many will argue that Andrew Jackson saved the Cherokee from extinction.
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States: Increase in the Power of the President- Can now use force to enforce laws Uses veto freely, vetoes more bills while in office than all other Presidents combined Develops use of pocket veto Spoils system Claims right of President to ignore Supreme Court rulings if he disagrees with them Claims right to ignore Congressional subpoenas His critics start to refer to him as King Andrew, I, and the National Republicans start to style themselves “Whigs”, and a new party is formed to fight Jackson Claims right to fire cabinet, and use an unofficial group of advisers to run the government
Andrew Jackson: Hero or Villain? Was he good for America? Were the new ideals he brought into office beneficial, or hurtful? Is he, overall and in the end,a hero, or a villain?Share presentation with a group