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Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 23 December 2016Don Haskins on Racism
The final buzzer rang off in Maryland’s Cole Field House basketball court. Many watched a game of Texas Western Miners and Kentucky Wildcats on March 19th, 1966, and yet most didn’t realize they just witnessed sports ethics redefine itself. It was a championship, an all or nothing statement for the players of Texas Western. The coach of the Miners, Don Haskins, had just won the NCAA title with five African American starters. They won a mere sports game, but it would prove to be much more than that.
A hero of integration, Haskins revolutionized college basketball by the way he indentified a player, by skill and not color. The 1960’s was a time of many cultural controversies that aspired to what America is today. It was not only about Vietnam, the hippie escapades, or the latest eight-track of the Beatles. The decade has been dubbed the civil rights era. Culture was starting to see African American integration from the help of civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks.
However not all heroes are recognized immediately, and Don Haskins, whether he planned it or not, helped pave the way to equality in sports. Before Haskins started to coach at Texas Western, the college recruited and played African Americans when it was typical for teams to have full-white roster and oppose integration into basketball (Schecter, 1998). No one imagined the day when five blacks would start at a pre-dominantly white college. Many whites actually did not want to have African Americans on their team at all in fear that it would cause integration through all civil aspects.
Frank. Fritzpatrick, author of And the Walls Came Tumbling Down, concurs, “When Negroes and whites meet on the athletic fields on a basis of complete equality, it is only natural that this sense of equality carries into the daily living of these people” (1999). Once they got on the court, the blacks were still held back and treated unfairly. One of the seven black Miner players, Harry Flournoy, stated “All the best players on the team were black, but there was this unspoken rule that no more than three blacks could play at once.
It was rough, but that’s the way it was” (Schecter, 1998). However, once Haskins came to Texas Western he followed its footsteps of recruiting black players; he sought out only the best players while ignoring the color of the players’ skin. Gathering players around the country, Haskins found skilled African Americans such as David Lattin, Harry Flournoy, and the five other players of 1966 title game. Fitzpatrick explains “they wound up being the core players for a basketball backwater team from El Paso that would force the all-white team from “pedigreed Kentucky” to crack” (1999).
For four years, Haskins coached the Miners and played black players. With the fifth season being wildly successful, Haskins struck awe in white crowds as he started all black players in the championship. “I remember walking out that night listening to the Kentucky fans saying, ‘We have to get some of them,'” today’s Maryland coach Gary Williams said. “That’s what they called the black players ‘them’ but they had to admit that they could play. ” Haskins changed the game of basketball when he started those five black players.
Whether he knew that it was going to change civil rights from then on, he played them to prove Kentucky Coach Adolph Rupp wrong. “Coach Haskins told us that Rupp has said in a press conference before the game that five black players couldn’t defeat five white players. Coach Haskins decided only the African American players would play that night, said Litten. ” (Championing Divsersity, 2006). Contrary to the public eye, Haskins stated “I wasn’t trying to make a statement,” he often said about beating Kentucky. I was trying to win a game. ” However, Feinstein argues, “ of course he was trying to make a statement. But Haskins had made it long before that night. He’d made it when he got to Texas Western in 1961 and began recruiting black players from everywhere” (2008). Some believe that night did not move Americans until it was brought up years later. Lattin just wanted to win a title, but neither he nor Haskins could have guessed it would help alter history.
It never seemed to cross their minds until approached later as addressed in this newspaper article, “ ‘it wasn’t a big, overwhelming event until years later when people looked back and said it was the sports equivalent of the board of education decision. The racial connotations and overtones weren’t really played out all that much at the time but I still think it was one of the most notable games I ever covered’, said photographer Rick Clarkson. ”(Championing Diversity, 2006). With there being truth in what Clarkson said, it did not take until the event’s movie, Glory Road, for integration to ensue in the NCAA.
Haskins and the Miners pushed the motion ever further that March night. “If you want to get down to the facts, we were more white-oriented than any of the other teams. We played the most intelligent, the most boring, and the most disciplined game of them all” (Fitzpatrick, 1999). No one could have said it better then the Miner’s Willie Worsley. They deserved the title. Haskins set out to be a basketball coach, not a hero. He recruited the best players he could find, knowing others would object their presence, but didn’t care. Haskins wanted to win.
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Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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A speech titled Racism, by US senator Barack Obama, was delivered to supporters, Philadelphia, PA. According to Barack Obama, race is an issue that the US cannot afford to ignore right now. Legalized discrimination -- where blacks or any other coloured people were prevented, often through violence, from owning property, or loans were not granted to African-American or foreign business owners, or black homeowners could not access FHA mortgages, or blacks were excluded from unions, or the police force, or fire departments -- meant that black families could not amass any meaningful wealth to bequeath to future generations. That history helps explain the wealth and income gap between black and white, and the concentrated pockets of poverty that persists in so many of today's urban and rural communities. In the white community; the path to a more perfect union means acknowledging that what ails the African-American community does not just exist in the minds of black people; that the legacy of discrimination are real and must be addressed.
This raised to a nationwide need to eliminate the racism and strive to live towards a more peaceful and united nation. This paper presents different definitions, different changes introduced to the term racism, the effects of racism and how one nation can combat racism.
This study is solely based on works done by different authors and researchers. It analyses the researches, journal articles and books written during the last decade. This study offers several tools to fight racism and presents an example of the American and Australian nursing industry where black nurses have been successful in making their importance. A shortage of white nurses was being experienced, black nurses realized the opportunity and proved themselves that they could serve the nation. If once industry can break the trap of racism, others can do too.Annotations
Philip's Encyclopaedia defines racism as a doctrine which promotes superiority of one particular race over another. It allows a race to dominate any other race on the basis of racial differences. Certain regimes have had policies supporting racism and promoting racist activities such as slavery and other discriminatory practices. For example, anti-Semitism is one of the common racist practices being carried out in Nazi Germany and the practices of Apartheid are common in South Africa. UNESCO revised the definition of racism in 1967 and termed it as anti-social beliefs and acts that give rise to the fallacies that discriminatory inter-group relations can be justified on the basis of biological differences. (Philip's Encylopaedia, 2008)
During the Eighteenth century, racism practices were at its peak. North American slavery, overseas colonization and empire building activities of some Western Europeans reflected the extent to which racism was being exercised back then. The concept of races was coined only to heighten the differences between the European origin in the US and African descents. These African descents were the ones whose ancestors were brought to US against their wills as 'slaves.' By practicing discriminatory practices and emphasizing that African descendants were of less importance, the American society was helping itself to justify exploitation of these African descendants to the world. US was making attempts to promote itself as the only country struggling for the freedom of humans, fighting for human rights, and the one creating the ideology of human equality whereas the country itself was exploiting Africans. To justify their actions, they introduced the concept of racism and tried proving that Africans were lesser human beings. By the Nineteenth century the concept of racism had spread like a fire and was popular across all the corners of the world. By Twentieth century, the world faced several racial conflicts which had no end. Racism is an acceptance to the view and deepest forms that implicate that the biological and racial differences are so great that they cannot be surpassed. ( Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, 2009)
Action taken by a person or persons (not directly involved as a target or perpetrator) to speak out about or to seek to engage others in responding (either directly or indirectly, immediately or at a later time) against interpersonal or systemic racism.
(Nelson, Dunn, & Paradies, 2011)
The term bystander was a new concept introduced to racism. One of the key variables of this view is group identity. Research specifies that under most conditions, bystanders more likely tend to help those whom they see as similar to themselves (Levine, Cassidy, Brazier, & Reicher, 2002; Saucier, Miller, & Doucet, 2005).
This helps in justifying the acts where White American participants generally offer less help to Black Americans than to fellow White Americans. This is more because of the fact that they fail to find a similarity. However, bystander's concept is particularly used when there is a failure to attribute such acts with a reason other than race (Saucier et al. 2005).
There was another study conducted to prove the above stance. It said that when helping would took longer or had more risk or it was more difficult, white Americans would offer less help to the Black Americans as compared to the help offered to companion White Americans. Kunstman and Plant (2008) conducted a research and came up with results supporting the above mentioned stances. They put experimental participants into different emergency situations and measured the speed and quantity of help provided to Black and White victims.
Blacks did receive help but that help was offered at a slower rate and less often than help offered to the Whites in equivalent emergencies. The results of this experiment also helped in deducing that the discrepancy between the help offered to Blacks as compared to Whites increased with the severity of the emergency. (Nelson, Dunn, & Paradies, 2011)
Racism is the hallmark of racial supremacy which is also often categorized by a belief that racial groups are genetically isolated and biologically based differences do exist in nature. Racists believe and justify their practices by posing the view that the biology of their group has afforded them greater intellect and moral fiber than the biology of other groups. These biological differences, therefore, the dominant and better groups must control the behaviours of members of groups with lesser intellect to maintain the supremacy of the dominant group.
Racial supremacy is built upon the prejudice and discrimination, phenomena that have been studied and researched in social psychology for more than 100 years. Prejudice is the negative emotion that an individual feels toward members of a different racial group. For instance, there was a layer of negative attitudes being expressed and felt against the Arab Americans. These emotions were evolved due to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks which can be thought of as prejudice.
Discrimination, in simple words, is treating people differently from one another based on their racial group membership. For example, if an individual owns a store and for certain reasons, s/he decides to sell goods only to members of one racial group, then he or she is discriminating against all the other racial groups. Violent hate crimes, such as lynching, are the most extreme form of discrimination. Racism, prejudice, and discrimination are often found in any of the three forms: interpersonal, institutional, and cultural. (Shelton & Richeson, 2007)
Consider, for instance, discrimination. Individual discrimination is defined as the biased treatment of one individual by another, such as attempts made by an individual to prohibit a member of a different race from joining the fraternity.
Institutional discrimination is defined as the unfair treatment of an entire race that can be done by putting sanctions on their entry or admission to different societal institutions, norms, or governing bodies. The Jim Crow laws of the U.S. South that mandated separate public facilities for Whites and Blacks, such as drinking fountains and bathrooms, was a typical example of institutional discrimination.
Cultural discrimination is defined as the promotion and normalization of the practices, values, and products of one race while degrading the values, practices, and products of other races. The use of a White norm for "skin colored" pantyhose and bandages is a form of cultural discrimination. (Shelton & Richeson, 2007)
However, many scholars claim that prejudice and discrimination can only be transformed into racism when a particular race has certain societal power over any other race because such societal powers allow the one race to be dominant over the other race and to define the racial category boundaries; promote and communicate stereotypes about the other racial groups in different mediums like religious places, media, schools, etc.; and control the access of the discriminated race to resources like educational, economic, and other societal resources. In other words, one can conclude that racism presumes the power which can enable a particular race to affect the lives of another race on a large scale. (Shelton & Richeson, 2007)
The author conducted a research and derived data from discussions with 25 progressive white women, most of who came to the study out of their concern about race issues. The author asked participants to talk about their own racism--what it feels like, what they think about it, and what they hope to do about it. The author could find the traces of racism in all of these 25 white women. The three forms of silent racism that were documented in this study include racist misconceptions, negative emotions, and "white" attitudes--entail notions of what it means to be white in a racist culture.
The author concluded that the silent racism underlies the everyday racism that routinely discriminates against people of colour, regardless of the "good intentions" of the actor. The author concludes the study by challenging white women interested in coalition building to presume their own silent racism, shifting attention away from being "not racist" to increasing awareness about race matters, including any racist misconceptions, negative emotions, and "white" attitudes of their own. (Trepagnier, 1997)
The study conducted by Polycarp Ikuenobe concluded that within the band of racism or racists, one may have tolerant and intolerant racists, various degrees of tolerant and intolerant racists, various other shades or types of racism and different manifestations of the attitudes of racism. The different subtle new forms of racism are though not as injurious and destructive as the older unacceptable forms but they still constitute racism, which means that the society is not yet in a post-racial era. The moral condemnation of some kinds of racism or racists may be relatively appropriate in some situations, but such condemnation for some racists (say, a truly ignorant, benevolent, or tolerant racist) may not be appropriate in some situations. A truly ignorant racist needs help and education. One would wish that a benevolent or tolerant racist give up her racial beliefs and attitudes. According to the author there is hope for such a racist that s/he might see the light and give up her or his racist beliefs and attitudes. So, tolerance is not an absolute but a relative moral value; its relative value depends on the context. In the context of racial differences, tolerating blacks is a relative moral value compared to the alternative of being an intolerant racist; but it is not a value compared to the alternative of not being a racist at all. (IKUENOBE, 2010)
The author here poses a new trend in the nursing industry. The author claims that many black nurses are being witnessed serving the white patients or working in white dominant territories. The nursing industry of Australia signifies that racism is not relevant and that race is no longer an issue. By centring the daily experiences of black, skilled migrant nurses recruited from Africa to overcome shortages of nurses in the workplace, we have exposed how racism is played out in seemingly 'normal' functioning of everyday interactions in a white dominated workplace which privileges the ideals of a 'non-racist' profession while systematically avoiding confronting racism when it occurs. Hence, the study is significant in that it not only generates new 'oppositionist accounts of race' (Crenshaw et al. 1995, xiii), it also reveals the need for investigations that interrogate the pervasiveness of racism in the everyday realities of black overseas qualified nurses in Australia, as well as their 'perceptions [and interpretations] about racism in everyday life' (Essed 1991, 1; Leah 1995). (Mapedzahama, Rudge, West, & Perron, 2011)
The author here has conducted different studies and analysed previously done studies to come up with the basic strategy to fight racism and eliminate it from the society. Learning about both the ubiquity of racism in society as well as the different forms of internalized racism is important to all racial group members, as is information on the forms and nature of different racial identities.5
This type of learning is known as "racial socialization" and has three main components: (i) learning to identify racism accurately and acknowledge its extent; (ii) role models who can demonstrate appropriate responses to racist situations including conversational skills and strategies utilizing polite corrections, witty repartees, jokes and stories rather than just facts and evidence (Guerin, 2003); and (iii) understanding the experience of racism, which may be fraught with feelings of difference, rejection, and confusion (Greene, 1994). (Paradies, 2005)
It is also possible to reduce the impact of racism through dismissing the importance of the domain in which racism has occurred (i.e. by asserting that academic achievement is not important after experiencing racism from a teacher) or by dismissing the significance of the perpetrator or their opinions (Major, Quinton, McCoy, & Schmader, 2000)
There are many other ways to stop and discourage racism. Government intervention and individual efforts are required to fight the racism prevailing in our societies since the Eighteenth century. Many federal policies, legislative policies, public service, public messages, media, education policy, law enforcement and many other different mediums and institutions can join together and help eradicating the roots of racism from the society and make it more of a united and powerful society with equal importance given to each member of the society.
Duckitt (2001) suggests that efforts to reduce prejudice can be organized around four causal levels of intervention: cognitive, individual, interpersonal, and societal. Duckitt's model represents a parsimonious synthesis of a broad range of findings from social psychology on approaches to reducing prejudice and discrimination. (Paradies, 2005)
Starting from an individual level to a nationwide level to governmental level, efforts, policies and regulations need to be set up to combat racism. Racism is like a slow poison eating up our society and rather than working together to survive in the competitive world, we are fighting amongst each other on the basis of factors that are simply not in control of a human being. Fate decides which biological or race do we born, but fate is not enough to allow us to degrade any other person. Race does not describe the intellect level or the logic or any other such traits. Race only determines the skin colour and few other personality traits. Cognitive traits are not determined by race. Therefore, it is high time to eradicate such trivial differences and eliminate all sorts of racial conflicts.
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